By Anna Lewington, Edward Parker
"Among the entire various productions with which Nature has embellished the surfaces of the earth, none awakens our sympathies, or pursuits our mind's eye so powerfully as these venerable bushes, which appear to have stood the lapse of ages." - John Muir, 1868
A interesting occasion of the a number of the oldest dwelling organisms on the earth, from the grand Oaks of Europe and strong Redwoods of California to Africas upside-down Baobab tree, and from the Ginkgos of China and Korea to the Olive tree, the global image of peace.
Ancient bushes covers these species of tree that experience lived for greater than one thousand years: the Redwood, Bristlecone pine, Montezuma Cypress, the Monkey Puzzle, Amazonian Ancients, Yew, Oak, candy Chestnut, Lime, Olive, Welwitschia, the Baobab, Kauri, Totara, Antarctic Beech, the Fig, Cedar, and Ginkgo.
Anna Lewington, the well known author on all issues botanical, and major flora and fauna photographer Edward Parker supply an illuminating and visually notable heritage of every tree species, together with the place the long-living species can nonetheless be discovered, the timber botanical information, and its legendary institutions.
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Extra resources for Ancient Trees: Trees That Live for 1,000 Years
The genesis of FORPLAN: A historical and analytical review of Forest Service planning models (Gen. tech. rep. INT-214). Ogden: USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 37 p. -G. (1985). The economics of forestry and natural resources. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. 292 p. Johnson, K. N. (1986). FORPLAN version 1: An overview. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, Land Management Planning Section. 85 p. Johnson, K. , Stuart, T. , & Crim, S. A. (1986). FORPLAN version 2: An overview.
Transitivity If the decision-maker prefers outcome A to B and outcome B to C, then he/she also prefers outcome A to C Comparability If the decision-maker has three outcomes, A, B and C, and he/she prefers A to B and B to C, he/she can choose a coefficient x such that utility of xA þ (1 À x) C ¼ B. The first of these axioms may be violated, if the decision-maker cannot make his/her mind. g. Eilon 1982; Knowles 1984; Bell and Farquhar 1986). Furthermore, the last axiom only makes sense if the outcomes that are compared are quantitative, such as money.
In addition, the set of criteria need to be complete, meaning that the decision criteria need to cover all relevant aspects of the decision situation. They need to be measurable, meaning that they define the objectives of the decision-maker precisely and specify the degree to which these objectives are achieved. It means that it is possible for the DM to see the differences in the consequences of the alternatives and give his/her preferences concerning these differences. The set of criteria need to be operational, meaning that it is possible to obtain the required information on the set of criteria with reasonable time and resources.
Ancient Trees: Trees That Live for 1,000 Years by Anna Lewington, Edward Parker