By Daniel J. Levitin
From The New York instances bestselling writer of THE geared up brain and this can be YOUR mind ON tune, a primer to the serious considering that's extra invaluable now than ever.
We are bombarded with additional info on a daily basis than our brains can process—especially in election season. it is raining undesirable info, half-truths, or even outright lies. New York Times bestselling writer Daniel J. Levitin shows the right way to realize deceptive bulletins, facts, graphs, and written reviews revealing the methods mendacity weasels can use them.
it is changing into more durable to split the wheat from the electronic chaff. How will we distinguish incorrect information, pseudo-facts, distortions, and outright lies from trustworthy details? Levitin teams his box consultant into categories—statistical infomation and defective arguments—ultimately displaying how technological know-how is the bedrock of serious considering. Infoliteracy ability realizing that there are hierarchies of resource caliber and bias that variously distort our info feeds through each media channel, together with social media. We might count on newspapers, bloggers, the govt, and Wikipedia to be factually and logically right, yet they so usually are usually not. we have to imagine seriously concerning the phrases and numbers we come upon if we wish to succeed at paintings, at play, and in taking advantage of our lives. this implies checking the plausibility and reasoning—not passively accepting details, repeating it, and making judgements in keeping with it. Readers discover ways to keep away from the extremes of passive gullibility and cynical rejection. Levitin's fascinating, wonderful, obtainable consultant can assist somebody get up to a complete lot of items that are not so. And seize a few mendacity weasels of their tracks!
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Extra resources for A Field Guide to Lies: Critical Thinking in the Information Age
By year two, you had only full-time employees, earning the $66,000 mentioned above. You can honestly claim that average employee earnings went up 65 percent. What a great employer you are! But here you are glossing over the fact that you are comparing part-time with full-time. S. Steel did it back in the 1940s. • • • In criminal trials, the way the information is presented—the framing—profoundly affects jurors’ conclusions about guilt. ” But that doesn’t mean that statistic will apply on your street, in your bridge club, or to anyone you know.
Correlations range from −1 to 1. A correlation of 0 means that one variable is not related to the other at all. A correlation of -1 means that as one variable goes up, the other goes down, in precise synchrony. A correlation of 1 means that as one variable goes up, the other does too, also in precise synchrony. The first graph appears to be illustrating a correlation of 0, the second graph appears to be representing one that is close to 1. 91, a very strong correlation. Spending more on students is, at least in this dataset, associated with better SAT scores.
He has an MBA. He should know better. Of course, you have to apply percentages to the same baseline in order for them to be equivalent. A 50 percent reduction in salary cannot be restored by increasing your new, lower salary by 50 percent, because the baselines have shifted. If you were getting $1,000/week and took a 50 percent reduction in pay, to $500, a 50 percent increase in that pay only brings you to $750. Percentages seem so simple and incorruptible, but they are often confusing. 33). If interest rates fall from 4 percent to 3 percent, that is a decrease of 1 percentage point, but not a decrease of 33 percent—it’s a decrease of 25 percent (because the 1 percentage point drop is now taken against the baseline of 4).
A Field Guide to Lies: Critical Thinking in the Information Age by Daniel J. Levitin